COMM. 404– EPIDEMIOLOGY OF SELECTED DISEASES AND MEDICAL ENTOMOLOGY:-

  1. Course Objectives:

 

At the end of the course the student should be able to appreciate the epidemiological factors important in the transmission/development and control of common communicable and non-communicable diseases in Nigeria.

  1. Course Description of the Course

 

The emphasis of the course is on the practical application of epidemiological principles/methods on tackling real health disease conditions within a defined population. The community disease/health issues addressed focus on environmental nutritional, maternal/child health problems encountered in the area. Apart from identifying factors causing and/or aiding the transmission of the disease, control/preventive strategies are instituted. The course involved lectures/practical sessions.

  1. Lecture Topics:
  • Determinants of health and disease
  • Epidemiology and control of Communicable Diseases:
  • Factors important to the transmission of disease (agent, host, environment)
  • Methods of transmission
  • Disease process and basic definitions
  • General principles of control
  • Control/eradication of disease
  • Level of prevention
  • Diseases associated with low standard of personal and public hygiene:
  • Introduction
  • General classification
  • Water associated diseases
  • Diseases associated with poor excreta disposal
  • Facial-oral infections
  • General principles of control
  • Soil transmitted helminthes:
  • Ascaris
  • E. Vermincularis
  • A. doudenale
  • A. Americanus
  • S. Stercoralis – trichuris trichure
  • Cutaneous: larval migrans

Visceral: larval migrans

  • Epidemiology and control of Non-communicable Diseases
  • Introduction
  • Examples
  • Control/prevention

 

b. Medical Entomology:

  1. Course Description:

 

Arthropods are of medical importance either by causing direct injury or by serving as vectors of disease. The manner in which arthropod transmit disease and the principles of vector control are discussed from ecological, physiological and genetic points of view. Laboratory colonies of various vector species will be demonstrated to students to provide the basic material for the life cycles and for arthropod identification.

  1. Objectives:

 

At the end of the course, students will be able to:

  • Identify arthropods of medical importance with emphasis on taxonomy, biology, and control of the agents associated with human diseases.
  • Provide the basic material for the study of the life cycles of arthropods of medical importance.

 

  1. Lecture Topics:
    • Introduction to medical importance of arthropods. Arthropods causing direct injury, environization, annoyance and blood loss, dermatitis, myiasis, contamination of stored products, allergy, entomophobia/derisory parasitosis, and accidental injury to sense organs.
    • Arthropods as vectors
  • definition of vectors
  • mechanism of transmission of disease agents via mechanical and biological process with examples

Arthropods as intermediate hosts (passive vectors)

  • Examples: Cyclops for draconcuos madness bulinus/biomphelaria snails for schist soma haematobium and mansoni
    • Arthropods of medical importance
  • Non biting files e.g. musca domestic a, Fannie canicularis, Phormia regina and
  • Scarcophaga species.

 

Biting Flies – Examples:

  • Mosquitoes: Anopheles, Culex Mansonia, Aedes sp.
  • Simulium sp. (block flies)
  • Hybomitra/Tabanus sp. (house flies)
  • Chrysops sp. (deer flies)
  • Glossina sp. (tsetse flies)
  • Pheasotomus sp. (sand flies)
  • Pulex initants (flies)
  • Pediculus sp. (lice)
  • Cimex sp. (bed bugs)
  • Dermacetor sp. (Hard ticks)
  • Ornithodoros sp. (soft ticks)
  • Sarcoptes sp. (mites)
  • Loxoscales sp. (spiders)
  • Centruroides (scorpions)
    • Control of Arthropodes of medical importance:

 

  • Mechanical/environmental management
  • Biological control
  • Personal protection measures